The book provides a self-contained mathematical introduction to linear optimization for undergraduate students of Mathematics. This book is equally suitable for Science, Engineering, and Economics students who are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the mathematical aspects of the subject. The linear optimization problem is analyzed from different perspectives: topological, algebraic, geometrical, logical, and algorithmic. Nevertheless, no previous knowledge of these subjects is required. The essential details are always provided in a special section at the end of each chapter. The technical material is illustrated with multiple examples, problems with fully-worked solutions, and a range of proposed exercises.